Planted evidence, also known as fabricated evidence or false evidence, refers to the act of placing or manufacturing evidence at a crime scene with the intent to mislead investigators or frame an individual for a crime they did not commit. This unethical and illegal practice undermines the integrity of the criminal justice system and poses a serious threat to the rule of law. In India, laws and judicial precedents address the issue of planted evidence to ensure fairness and justice in legal proceedings. This article explores the legal framework, judicial perspectives, and implications of planted evidence in Indian law.

Legal Framework:

1. Indian Penal Code, 1860 (IPC)

Several provisions of the Indian Penal Code are relevant to the planting of false evidence:

  • Section 192: Deals with fabricating false evidence. It prescribes punishment for giving false evidence with the intent to procure a conviction of an offence punishable by death or imprisonment for life, or with the intent to cause any person to be convicted of such an offence.
  • Section 193: Pertains to punishment for false evidence. It imposes penalties for intentionally giving false evidence in any stage of a judicial proceeding.
  • Section 195: Addresses the offence of giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure a conviction of a capital offence. It prohibits the initiation of proceedings for such offences without the prior sanction of a competent authority.

2. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (CrPC)

The Code of Criminal Procedure contains procedural provisions relevant to the investigation and prosecution of criminal cases involving planted evidence:

  • Section 162: Provides that statements made to police officers during the course of investigation are not admissible as evidence, except for the limited purpose of contradicting or corroborating the statements made by the witness in court.
  • Section 311: Empowers the court to summon any person as a witness examine any person in attendance, or recall and re-examine any person already examined, if it appears necessary for the just decision of the case.

Judicial Perspectives:

Indian courts have consistently condemned the practice of planting false evidence and have adopted a strict approach towards cases involving fabricated evidence. Several landmark judgments highlight the judiciary’s stance on this issue:

  1. State of Punjab v. Ramdev Singh: The Supreme Court emphasized the importance of integrity and fairness in criminal trials and held that the evidence planted by investigating agencies to implicate the accused cannot be relied upon.
  2. State of Maharashtra v. Damu: The Bombay High Court observed that planted evidence undermines the credibility of the criminal justice system and violates the fundamental rights of the accused.
  3. Nisar Ahmed v. State of Uttar Pradesh: The Allahabad High Court held that planting of false evidence amounts to a serious miscarriage of justice and warrants stringent action against the perpetrators.

Implications and Consequences:

The planting of false evidence has far-reaching consequences for both the accused and the justice system as a whole:

  1. Violation of Rights: Planting of false evidence violates the fundamental rights of the accused, including the right to a fair trial, the right against self-incrimination, and the right to liberty.
  2. Erosion of Public Trust: The practice of planting evidence erodes public trust in law enforcement agencies and the judiciary, leading to a loss of confidence in the criminal justice system.
  3. Miscarriage of Justice: Fabricated evidence can lead to wrongful convictions, resulting in the miscarriage of justice and irreparable harm to the accused and their families.


Planted evidence is a serious offence that undermines the principles of justice, fairness, and integrity in legal proceedings. The legal framework in India, comprising provisions of the Indian Penal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure, seeks to deter and punish the planting of false evidence. Judicial pronouncements further underscore the judiciary’s commitment to upholding the rule of law and safeguarding the rights of the accused. It is imperative for law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, and the judiciary to remain vigilant and ensure that cases involving planted evidence are thoroughly investigated and prosecuted. Upholding the principles of fairness, impartiality, and integrity is essential to maintain public trust and confidence in the criminal justice system.

Adv. Khanak Sharma

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