Stalking is a pattern of unwanted and obsessive attention, manifested through repeated and intrusive behaviors, which instill fear, anxiety, or distress in the targeted individual. These behaviors may include following, monitoring, persistent communication, and other actions that invade the person’s privacy and compromise their sense of safety. Stalking can occur both in physical spaces and online, constituting a form of harassment with the potential to cause severe emotional, psychological, and sometimes physical harm to the victim.


Stalking can take various forms, and it is often categorized based on the nature of the behaviors exhibited by the perpetrator. Here are some common types of stalking:

1. Physical Stalking:

Involves the stalker physically following the victim.

Includes loitering near the victim’s home, workplace, or other frequented locations.

2. Cyberstalking

Occurs through electronic communication and online platforms.

Involves sending threatening emails, messages, or engaging in other forms of online harassment.

May include the unauthorized monitoring of the victim’s online activities.

3. Voyeuristic Stalking

Involves covertly observing or photographing the victim without their knowledge or consent.

May extend to the use of hidden cameras or other surveillance methods to invade the victim’s privacy.

4. Erotomania or Delusional Stalking:

– Characterized by a delusional belief that the stalker and the victim are in a romantic relationship, even when there is no actual connection.

– The stalker may believe that the victim reciprocates their feelings despite evidence to the contrary.

5. Celebrity Stalking:

– Involves an individual obsessively pursuing a celebrity.

– The stalker may attempt to make unwanted contact, send gifts, or engage in other intrusive behaviors.

6. Political Stalking:

– Targets individuals involved in politics or public service.

– The stalker may engage in harassment to express disagreement or dissatisfaction with the victim’s political views or actions.

7. Corporate Stalking:

Targets individuals associated with a particular company or organization.

The stalker may be a disgruntled employee, competitor, or someone with a personal vendetta against the organization.

8. Intimate Partner Stalking:

Occurs within the context of a past or current intimate relationship.

The stalker may use stalking behaviors to control, intimidate, or exert power over their partner.

9. Revenge Stalking

Aims to retaliate against the victim for perceived wrongs or grievances.

The stalker may seek revenge for a real or imagined injustice.

10.Serial Stalking:

Involves a pattern of stalking behavior targeting multiple individuals over time.

The stalker may exhibit similar patterns of harassment across different victims.

Legal Framework:

India has recognized the severity of stalking, leading to the incorporation of anti-stalking provisions in the legal framework. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013, introduced Section 354D in the Indian Penal Code (IPC), which specifically addresses the offense of stalking. Despite these legal provisions, the underreporting of stalking cases remains a significant challenge, primarily due to societal stigmas, fear of reprisal, and a lack of faith in the judicial system.


Stalking in India is a complex and multifaceted problem that demands concerted efforts from law enforcement, policymakers, and society at large. The legal framework is in place, but its effectiveness hinges on proactive implementation, while public awareness and support systems are critical for breaking the silence surrounding stalking. As the nation progresses, addressing and eradicating stalking should be a priority to ensure the safety and well-being of individuals across the country.

Written by Adv Abhishek Chauhan

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