The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) has been a contentious issue in Indian politics for decades. The UCC refers to the proposal of a single set of civil laws governing personal matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, and property rights for all citizens irrespective of their religion.

The politics of implementing a UCC can be viewed from different perspectives. On the one hand, proponents argue that the UCC would promote equality, secularism, and modernization in Indian society by eliminating discriminatory personal laws based on religion. They argue that a uniform civil code would provide equal rights and justice to all citizens, irrespective of their religion, and would help in the integration of the Indian society.

On the other hand, opponents argue that the implementation of a UCC would be a threat to the diversity of Indian society and would encroach upon the rights of minority religious communities.  They also contend that the UCC would lead to cultural assimilation and would harm the pluralistic fabric of Indian society.

Political Challenges

The political challenges in implementing a UCC are significant. India is a multi-religious and diverse society, and different religious communities have their own personal laws that have been in existence for centuries. The implementation of a UCC would require a significant political consensus across different religious and cultural groups, which has not been possible so far.

The politics of implementing a UCC in India are complex and fraught with challenges. While the UCC is an important issue that;needs to be addressed, any attempts to implement it should be done through a process of dialogue and consensus-building among different religious communities and political parties.

Current situation of India on UCC

Currently, India does not have a Uniform Civil Code (UCC) in place. Personal laws governing matters such as marriage, divorce, and inheritance are based on religious and customary practices and are specific to different religious communities. For example, Hindu personal laws are different from Muslim personal laws, which are different from Christian personal laws, and so on.

The debate around implementing a UCC in India has been ongoing for several decades, but no significant progress  made in this regard. The Indian Constitution provides for the implementation of a UCC under Article 44, which states that “The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.”

Several governments have attempted to bring in a UCC, but none have been successful. In recent years, the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) has reiterated its commitment to implementing a UCC, and it is a part of their election manifesto. However, the issue remains contentious, and several opposition parties and religious groups have opposed the idea of a UCC.

The lack of a UCC has also been a source of controversy and litigation. For example, the Supreme Court of India has taken up cases related to gender discrimination in personal laws, including the practice of instant triple talaq in Muslim personal law. The court has called for reforms in personal laws to ensure gender equality but has not gone so far as to mandate the implementation of a UCC.

The current status of the UCC in India is that it remains a contentious issue with no significant progress towards its implementation.

Some Cases where UCC is implemented

several cases filed in Indian courts regarding the implementation of a Uniform Civil Code (UCC). Some of the notable cases are:

  • Mohammad Ahmed Khan v. Shah Bano Begum (1985)

This case dealt with the issue of maintenance for Muslim women after divorce. The Supreme Court ruled that; Muslim women  entitled to maintenance under; the secular law (Section 125 of the Criminal Procedure Code) and that the Muslim Personal Law Board’s objections were untenable. This case led to widespread protests from Muslim groups and ultimately led to the enactment of the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986, which curtailed the rights of Muslim women in this regard.

  • SarlaMudgal v. Union of India (1995)

This case dealt with the issue of bigamy and conversion to Islam for the purpose of contracting a second marriage. The Supreme Court held that the act of conversion to Islam solely for the purpose of contracting a second marriage while the first marriage was subsisting was a violation of the principles of secularism, equality, and the rule of law. The court also noted that the implementation of a UCC was necessary for ensuring gender justice and equality.

  • John Vallamattom v. Union of India (2003)

This case dealt with the issue of Christian personal law and the validity of Canon Law. The Supreme Court held that; Canon Law could not have the force of law in India and that; any dispute arising under Christian personal law  resolved under the Indian legal system.

  • ShayaraBano v. Union of India (2017)

This case dealt with the issue of instant triple talaq, a practice prevalent in Muslim personal law where a husband could divorce his wife by uttering talaq thrice. The Supreme Court held that the practice of instant triple talaq was unconstitutional and violated the principles of gender justice, equality, and the rule of law.


The politics of implementing a UCC in India has been shaped by a range of factors, including political ideologies, religious beliefs, and cultural norms. Different political parties and interest groups have taken positions on the issue, with some supporting the implementation of a UCC and others opposing it. This issue will remain the same until there is political consensus. UCC should be implemented so that; there will be no discrimination and it will be easy for the judiciary to deal with different groups of society with the same manner.




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