In an environment where matrimony is highly esteemed, Section 498-A of the IPC both injures and shields. In addition to addressing issues of gender equality, dowry harassment, and domestic abuse, it also raises questions about the fairness of the legal system and social norms, such as the influence on family dynamics, bogus FIRs, and the detention of an accused person based only on a complaint without any further inquiry.

The National Commission for Women (NCW) received the largest number of complaints of crimes against women since 2014 in 2022—nearly 31,000. Startling! This demonstrates the need for so much focus on this subject. This clause aims to prevent behaviours that could lead women to consider self-harm, such as stealing property or money from them or mistreating them.

Now, let’s explore Section 498-A IPC in detail.

What is Section 498-A IPC?

The IPC has a section 498-A that specifically addresses abuse of married women. Put more simply, it outlines some behaviours that may be deemed cruel if committed by a husband or members of his family:

According to the legislation, a person accused under this clause will face consequences if he:

  • Does a lady bodily harm or damage her mind or body in some other way.
  • demands assets, cash, or priceless possessions from the woman or her family.
  • The woman’s life becomes so unbearably terrible as a result that she considers suicide or feels like harming herself.

Key Essentials in Section 498-A IPC

When cruelty occurs, the courtroom transforms into a place where justice is decided by the feelings and expectations of the parties involved as well as by legal theories. This begs the question of whether the law becomes a tool for those who can control it, or if it can truly solve complicated challenges in relationships.

  • It was first introduced in 1983 under the Criminal Law Second Amendment Act with the intention of preventing harassment and domestic abuse that married women in India experience.
  • The criminal offence of “cruelty by husband or relatives” towards a married woman is covered by Section 498-A.
  • The clause only applies to women who are married.
  • In accordance with this clause, cruelty must be connected to a dowry demand. In India, dowry is a societal ill where the bride’s family is expected to provide significant gifts or wealth to the groom’s family upon marriage. Section 498A acknowledges that crimes related to dowry are frequently accompanied by cruelty and works towards preventing this type of mistreatment.
  • That woman had to have been subjected to abuse or harassment. The phrase “cruelty” can refer to a wide variety of behaviours, which means it is comprehensive, covering various forms of abuse against a married woman.

Bail under Section 498-A IPC

  • The offence under Section 498-A is cognizable and non-compoundable.
  • Only until the police file a formal complaint (FIR) based on the aggrieved party’s complaint may the magistrate issue bail.
  • The Supreme Court emphasises that Section 498-A should only be applied in situations where there is clear proof of cruelty.
  • The court issued a warning against resolving personal matters through the section.

Who can be prosecuted for cruelty?

In accordance with this statute, the court may pursue:

  1. spouse.
  2. both his close and extended family.

The Supreme Court ruled in U. Suvetha v. State (2009) that under Section 498A, prosecutions can only be brought against blood relatives. A husband’s concubine or girlfriend cannot be prosecuted. 

Punishment for Sec. 498-A IPC

If someone mistreats a woman after marriage, they can be punished with up to 3 years in jail and a fine. The term “cruelty” is broad—it includes hurting her physically or mentally and harassing her to force her or her family to meet unfair demands, like giving property or valuables. This also covers harassment related to dowry. If the mistreatment becomes so bad that it makes the woman think about hurting herself or committing suicide, it’s also considered “cruelty.”

Laws curbing violence against women

Other legislation in India that aims to reduce the number of cases of violence against women includes:

  • The 2005 Protection of Women from Domestic Abuse Act (PWDVA).
  • Act of 1961 Prohibiting Dowry.
  • Act of 2013 on the Prevention, Prohibition, and Redressal of Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace.
  • Indian Penal Code (IPC): To address violence against women, the IPC has a number of sections, such as:
    • Section 376: This section addresses the punishment for rape, with more stringent guidelines for specific kinds of offences.
    • Section 354 addresses the use of force or criminal attack against women with the intention of offending their modesty.
    • Section 354A: Dealing with sexual harassment and punishment for the same.
    • Section 354D: Making stalking a crime and outlining the penalties for it.
    • Section 509 addresses remarks, actions, or gestures meant to belittle a woman’s modesty.
  • The 2013 Criminal Law (Amendment) Act: This act, which dramatically altered the regulations pertaining to sexual offences, was passed in reaction to the Nirbhaya case. Among other things, it contained provisions for harsher penalties for rape, gang rape, and acid attacks.
  • The 2018 Criminal Law (Amendment) Act: Following the Kathua Rape Case, this legislation was approved, modifying certain important sections of the IPC, such as Section 376. For instance, the addition of Section 376 AB, etc.

Recent Important Cases on Cruelty

In order to gain a better understanding of Section 498A’s consequences, let us examine a significant case from 2023:

The State of Karnataka v. Paranagouda case (2023)

Facts: In an emotionally devastating trial, the Supreme Court found the defendants guilty in the terrible death of a young woman. Based on a dying declaration, the experienced trial judge judged the accused guilty and sentenced them to seven years under Section 304B, five years under the Dowry Prohibition Act, and one year under Sections 498A and 4 of the Dowry Prohibition Act. For violating Section 3 of the Dowry Prohibition Act, they were fined Rs. 31,000. Every sentence flows into the next.


  • The Supreme Court clarified that the omission to frame a specific charge does not prevent the court from convicting the accused for a proven offence based on the evidence on record.
  • The court emphasised the adaptability of the judicial system by pointing out that the Code of Criminal Procedure contains sufficient procedures to deal with circumstances in which charges may not have been made clearly.
  • The SC emphasised that all the elements and facts required to frame charges under Section 306 were there in this particular case. The deceased committed suicide by self-immolation after being subjected to cruelty by the accused, as alleged in the Section 304B allegation.
  • The Supreme Court argued that the case was not irreversibly damaged by the trial judge’s failure to bring up Section 306 IPC in addition to Section 498A. Considering the clear reference to cruelty resulting in suicide in the charge established under Section, it was determined that such omission did not constitute any unfairness to the accused under 304B.

How do you file a complaint for cruelty?

A victim of domestic abuse may choose to report the incident to the women’s cell (CAW), the Special Police Unit for Women and Children (SPUWAC), or the local police station. Another option is to file a complaint by calling the Women’s Helpline at “1091). District-specific modules offered by the relevant authorities can be consulted by anyone seeking further information on civil remedies available under the Domestic Violence Act.


In summary, the IPC’s Section 498A is essential for preventing cruelty towards married women, but its implementation must be carefully considered to avoid abuse. Maintaining justice, gender equality, and a society free from abuse and fear necessitates constant debates, awareness efforts, and legal improvements. 

30,957 cases total—9,710 involving the right to live in dignity, 6,970 involving domestic abuse, and 4,600 involving dowry harassment—were reported to the NCW in 2022. These concerning figures highlight the need for Section 498A to protect married women’s rights and welfare.

Adv. Khanak Sharma

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