What is surrogacy?

Surrogacy is an agreement whereby a woman (called surrogate) agrees to carry a pregnancy for another person or persons (called intended parents), who will be the child’s parents after birth. It is an arrangement or agreement whereby a woman agrees to carry a pregnancy for another person or persons, who will become the newborn child’s parent(s) after birth. Surrogacy is the well-known method of reproduction where one woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child for other women. The word “Surrogate’’ derives from the Latin word “Subrogate’’ means “Appointed to act in the place of ‘’. The intended parent is the individual or couples who intend to take the child after his/ her birth.


First and most famous case of surrogacy was The “Baby M.” case involving a Traditional surrogacy in the United States. The couple Bill and Betsy hired a woman Mary Beth Whitehead as surrogate in 1984. This case marked as huge importance in the history of surrogacy. The court found this arrangement as illegal. But the court handed over thee custody to the couple for the child’s interest. Due to this legal issue, many professionals moved towards the use of gestational surrogacy.

There are 6 Types of Surrogacy

Gestational Surrogacy:  When the intended mother’s egg and intended father’s sperm are used to creating an embryo that is implanted into and carries by the Surrogate Mother. In this method, the child is genetically related to his/ her parents and surrogate mother has no genetic relation. Traditional Surrogacy:  This involves artificially inseminating a surrogate mother with the intended father’s sperm through IUI (Intrauterine insemination), IVF or home insemination (By using Fresh or frozen sperm). In this method, the child is genetically related to the father and the surrogate mother. Traditional Surrogacy and Donor’s Sperm:  This involves artificially inseminating a surrogate mother with donor sperm through IUI, IVF or home insemination. In this method, the child is genetically related to the sperm donor and the surrogate mother. Gestational surrogacy and Egg donor:  When the intended mother is unable to produce eggs, then there comes a donor egg which is fertilized by sperm from the intended father. The surrogate mother carries the embryo. In this method, the child is genetically related to the intended father and the egg donor. Gestational surrogacy and Donor Sperm: When the intended father is unable to produce sperms, then there comes a donor sperm. Then the surrogate mother carries an embryo developed from the intended mother’s egg (who is unable to carry a pregnancy herself) and donor sperm. In this method, the child is genetically related to the intended mother. Gestational Surrogacy and Donor Embryo: When the intended parents are unable to produce sperms and eggs, then the Surrogate mother can carry a donated mother. In this method, the child is not genetically related to the intended father and intended mother.

What is Commercial surrogacy:

When the surrogate mother receives the compensation beyond the reimbursement of medical and other expenses, then this arrangement is called the Commercial Surrogacy.

Different issues related to the Surrogacy:

Ethical Issues:  1. The concern about the Commoditization or coercion when the surrogate mother is paid to be pregnant and deliver the child. 2. Should a child bear have the right to know the people involved? 3. When there is a large wealth difference between, the intended parents and surrogate mother. This situation might lead to the exploitation of the surrogate mother sometimes. Religious issues: In some of the religions, followers see this as immoral. Social Issues Even in today’s society surrogacy is considered as taboo. In Indian society, the Procreation of children is a major issue in marriages. People believe to be having his/ her own child rather than it or any other procedure. Psychological issues The Surrogate mother sometimes refuses to give the child to the intended parents due to the emotional connection that attached to the child. Lack of awareness People still don’t have proper knowledge about this.


The emerging technology facilitates the couples to have their own child even they are unable to produce one, by the method of surrogacy. But the social issues or dues to the societal pressure, few couples are unable to attain this method. The families of the intended parents want their heir who is related by blood relations only.

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