In this article we will know about the “requisites of valid adoptions” and will  try to understand the whole process of adoptions in very simple and clear language. .

If we talk about the word “Adoption” it means a legal procedure which permanently terminates the legal relationship between the child and his biological parents and initiates a new parent child relationship.

Procedure of adoption

1. Capacity and Consent:

   – The first and foremost requisite for adoption under the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act is that the adopting party must have the capacity to adopt. This includes being of sound mind and not suffering from any mental illness that would hinder the ability to make a rational decision.

   – Consent is another critical element. The person adopting must be willing to adopt, and if married, the consent of the spouse is mandatory.

2. Eligibility of Adoptive Parents:

   – The Act outlines the eligibility criteria for individuals seeking to adopt. Any Hindu male who is of sound mind and has not already been adopted, and who is not married, can adopt a child. Likewise, a Hindu female can adopt if she is of sound mind, has not been adopted, and is not married.

3. Age Requirements:

   – There are specific age requirements for adoptive parents. For a male, the age difference between him and the child should be at least 21 years. For a female, the age difference should be at least 21 years as well.

4. Requirements for a Male Adopting a Female Child:

   – If a Hindu male is adopting a female child, the adoptive father should be at least 21 years older than the child. Additionally, the adoptive father must not have a wife living at the time of adoption unless his wife:

      – Has completely and finally renounced the world.

      – Has ceased to be a Hindu.

      – Has been declared by a court of competent jurisdiction to be of unsound mind.

5. Conditions for Adoption by a Female:

   – If a Hindu female is adopting a male child, the adoptive mother should be at least 21 years older than the child. Similar to male adoptive parents, female adoptive parents must not have a husband living unless he:

      – Has completely and finally renounced the world.

      – Has ceased to be a Hindu.

      – Has been declared by a court of competent jurisdiction to be of unsound mind.

6. Formalities and Procedures:

   – The Act prescribes certain formalities and procedures for the adoption process. These include the registration of the adoption deed, which needs to be executed and registered in accordance with the Registration Act of 1908.

7. Child’s Eligibility:

   – The child to be adopted must be a Hindu, and the adoption must be from the same caste or community unless custom permits otherwise.

8. Guardianship of Adopted Child:

   – The Act stipulates that the adoptive parents become the child’s legal guardians, and the adopted child loses all ties with their biological family.


The Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956, plays a crucial role in regulating and facilitating the adoption process within the Hindu community. Understanding the requisites outlined in the Act is essential for individuals aspiring to adopt, ensuring a legal and ethical adoption process that benefits both the adoptive parents and the child.

Written By Adv Abhishek Chauhan

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