• The Constitution is a legal document that sets the framework of rules and regulations according to which a country is governed.
  • The Constitution of India is the fundamental law of the land.
  • It is an organic document that defines the powers and functions of the Government and their relationship among themselves.
  • It is a legal document framed by the body of eminent representatives chosen by the people of India.
  • Constitution of India is mainly concerned with two aspects:

(a). Relationship between the different organs of the Government.

(b). Relationship between the Government and its citizens.


  • Under the Cabinet Mission 1946, the Constituent Assembly was formed in November 1946.
  • The Constituent Assembly met for the first time on 9th December 1946.
  • On 11th December 1946, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the Assembly’s Chairman, Sh. Harendra Coomar as the Vice President and Sh. BN Rau as the first Constitutional Advisor.
  • The Assembly adopted ‘Objective Resolution’ under which the people of India were guaranteed the Social, Economic & Political Justice and Equality and Fundamental Rights.
  • On 29th August 1947, the Drafting Committee comprising of 7 members was formed under the Chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
  • The Assembly held a total of 11 sessions and sat for 2 years, 11 months, and 18 days.
  • The Constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949 and came into force on 26th January 1950.

Why do we need a Constitution?

  • Constitution plays a vital role in being the fundamental or basic law of the land.
  • It is required to govern the Country properly.
  • It is needed to have a proper authoritative allocation of powers to the State within their limits.
  • A constitution is required to maintain the feeling of oneness among its citizens.
  • It also provides its citizens with various fundamental rights and freedoms.

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