Hindu marriage traditions have evolved over time to fit the needs and preferences of the people. It refers to the relationship between a husband and wife. This is one of the most important sacraments in Hinduism, which comprises 16 in total. It is a divine relationship that cannot be broken, which continues from birth to birth, as well as a bond that endures rebirth and death. According to the Vedas, a man is completed until he marries and finds his mate.

Hindu Marriage As a Sacrament:

Hindu marriage is regarded as a religious sacrament since it is only valid when rites and ceremonies are conducted. Hindus have made a comprehensive effort or endeavour to idealize marriage. Even the Rig Vedas say that Hindu marriage was considered a sacramental union. The Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 is meant to safeguard the rights of marriage for the Hindu bride and groom who are linked by the sacred union of marriage under any ceremony. This act is binding to any person who is Hindu, Jain, Sikh or Buddhist and is not a Muslim, Christian, Parsi or Jew and is governed by some other law.

Ceremonies for a Hindu Marriage:

The ceremonies and procedures used in Hindu marriage also demonstrate its sacramental character. A complete marriage requires the performance of specific rites. According to section 7 of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955, a Hindu marriage can be solemnized according to either party’s conventional rites and customs. Saptapadi (the taking of seven steps by the bridegroom and the bride jointly before the sacred fire) is one such process and ceremony; when the seventh step is made, the marriage becomes complete and binding. It is the most crucial, and if it is not completed, marriage would be incomplete.

Conditions for a Valid Marriage:

According to the Section 5 of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955, the conditions for the valid Hindu Marriage are-


A person should not have a live spouse during the marriage. It is not legal to have two married women at the same time. It is also a criminal offence according to the Indian penal code.

2.Mental capacity:

Both parties must be of sound mind at the time of marriage and must be capable of giving valid consent.

3.Marriageable age:

The bridegroom must have completed the age of 21 years and the bride must have completed the age of 18 years.

4.Prohibited and Sapinda Relationship:

Parties are not sapindas of each other and shall not fall within the degree of prohibited relationship unless the custom or usage governing each of them permits a marriage between the two.


Hindu marriage is not only a legal contract but also a sacred sacrament deeply ingrained in spiritual and cultural traditions. Without the performance of the traditional marriage ceremony, the marriage is considered invalid under Hindu law. Hindu weddings transcend mere legalities; they symbolize the eternal commitment between two individuals and their families. These ceremonies are not just rituals; they carry profound spiritual significance, representing the values of love, unity, and adherence to ancient customs. Hindu marriage is a revered institution that blends legal validity with spiritual sanctity, reflecting the esteemed cultural heritage of India.

~ Arisha Qureshi (LEGAL INTERN)

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