Consumer complaints arise when customers feel dissatisfied with a product or service. Filing a consumer complaint is a crucial step in protecting your rights and seeking resolution. This article provides a comprehensive guide on how to file a consumer complaint effectively.

Who can file a complaint in a Consumer Court?

Consumer complaints can be filed by any individual who has purchased a product or service for personal use or consumption. The term “consumer” typically encompasses a broad range of individuals, including customers, clients, or end-users. Regardless of age, gender, or background, any person who enters into a transaction with a business and experiences issues related to the quality, safety, or representation of the product or service has the right to file a consumer complaint.

This inclusivity ensures that legal protection extends to a wide spectrum of individuals, reinforcing the principle that fair business practices and product/service quality should be upheld for the benefit of all consumers. Whether it’s a faulty product, misleading advertising, or subpar service, anyone directly affected by a consumer-related issue is encouraged to assert their rights and seek resolution through the appropriate channels.

The following are grounds for filing a complaint:

  • The service provider’s adoption of an unfair trade practice or a restrictive trade practice
  • Defective products, whether the complaint has already purchased them or has consented to do so
  • Inadequacy in services, whether contracted, provided, or consented to be provided
  • Overcharging for products or services in excess of what may have been set by law, indicated on product packaging, included in an exhibit’s price list, or decided upon by the parties
  • Selling or offering to sell dangerous products or services that, when used or obtained, endanger life and safety, if the trader has the means to determine, through reasonable investigation, that the products or services are dangerous

What is the procedure to file a complaint in the Consumer Court?

Step 1: Communication through Notice:  A notification that the person who feels wronged should send to the service company that supplied the products or services. The notice notifies the complainant of his plan to file a lawsuit and provides him with information regarding any unfair practices, service deficiencies, and product defects. The notice also serves as an attempt to resolve the issue without going through the Forum, by asking the service provider whether they would be prepared to provide restitution or another kind of remedy.

STEP 2: Drafted Consumer Complaint: The next step is to register a formal complaint under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, if the service provider refuses to pay compensation or any other remedy. There is no need for legal representation to file the complaint. The party who feels wronged may file a complaint. The complaint has to include the following information:

  • Name, description, and address of the opposing party or parties, as well as the complainant.
  • Cause of Action, approximate time, date, and location.
  • pertinent information about the action’s cause.
  • The relief or remedy that the complaint is claiming in accordance with the case’s facts.
  • Verification and signature from the complainant or a representative with authorization.

STEP 3: Attach Relevant Documents: Copies of material evidence and relevant documents that support your case in the Consumer Court are important. These documents include:

  • A copy of the bill, receipt of delivery, packaging of a product, a record of online booking of the goods bought
  • Warranty/Guarantee certificates
  • A copy of the written complaint and notice sent to the manufacturer/seller

STEP 4: Pay Requisite Court Fees: Depending on the venue, a certain charge must be paid in addition to the submitted complaint. The amount of compensation requested and the value of the goods purchased determine the court cost.

Does the Consumer Court have a particular time limit for filing cases?

It is necessary to file a consumer complaint within two years after the emergence of the cause of action, service deficiency, or product defect. Nonetheless, if the District Forum determines that the complainant has good cause to register the complaint outside of the two-year statutory timeframe, the law permits the consumer to file a complaint after that time. If the delay can be justified and is reasonable, it may be excused.


Thus, under the Consumer Protection Act protection has been extended to the Consumers to protect them against unscrupulous traders or sellers and to safeguard their basic rights. It provides protection, a mechanism to settle disputes, and the establishment of forums exclusively for Consumer Protection Cases.

We are a law firm in the name and style of Law Offices of Kr. Vivek Tanwar Advocate and Associates at Gurugram and Rewari. We are providing litigation support services related to law matters in India, please do not hesitate to contact us. We are here to provide you with expert legal counsel and representation tailored to your specific needs and concerns.

Written by: Avichal Singhal Adv.

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